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Connect By

‘Connect By’ can be used in SQL to read/update hierarchical data in a table.

It has the following syntax:


[ Start With (condition1) ] Connect By [ NoCycle ] (condition2)

An example for condition2 above can be:

Connect by prior employee_id = manager_id and

prior manager_id = director_id


To see the effect of ‘prior’ keyword, let us just reverse the application of ‘prior’ from emp_id to mgr_id

So, prior just helps to determine which row is treated as parent by the DB.

Example to show usage of ‘Start With’:

‘Connect by’ can be made to work on multiple tables too (in case parent child relationship is split across 2 tables) by first joining the 2 tables and then running the connect by.

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