Queue is a list where insertion is done at one end and removal is done at the other end.

Dequeue is a list where every end supports insertion and removal.
With this feature, it is possible to use the dequeue as a list and a stack at the same time as required by the application.

Priority queue does not have any ends.
In a priority queue, elements can be inserted in any order but removal of the elements is in a sorted order.
Due to this behavior, a priority queue can be used to sort the elements.

Since sorting is done only when the elements are removed from the priority queue, the PQ is easily implemented by a heap.
Using an array-based heap, elements can be inserted and deleted in O(logN).

java.util package provides implementations for all of the above.

Code to get top 'K' elements from 'N' elements:

import java.util.PriorityQueue;
public class PriorityQueueTest {
public static PriorityQueue<Integer> getTopK (int[] arr, int k)
{
PriorityQueue<Integer> minQ = new PriorityQueue<Integer>();
// Put first k elements into the queue
for(int i = 0; i < k; i++)
minQ.add(new Integer(arr[i]));
// Iterate over the remaining array.
// If anything larger than the minimum of priority queue is seen,
// then remove the minimum and add the new one
for(int i = k; i < arr.length; i++)
{
Integer minValue = minQ.peek();
if(arr[i] > minValue.intValue())
{
minQ.poll(); // remove the minimum
minQ.add(new Integer(arr[i])); // add the larger
}
}
return minQ; // return top K elements
}
// Function to test the above function
public static void main(String[] args)
{
int N = 100000;
int k = 1000;
int arr[] = new int[N];
for (int i=0; i<N; i++)
arr[i] = (int)(Math.random()*N*3);
PriorityQueue<Integer> topK = getTopK (arr, k);
for (int i : arr)
System.out.print(i+", ");
System.out.println();
for (int i=0; i<k; i++)
System.out.print(topK.poll()+", ");
}
}

Order Analysis: The above code to select top 'K' elements from 'N' elements runs in O(N log K) time.
If K is sufficiently small as compared to N, then it becomes effectively O(N)

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